What’s Your Bacterial Disease?

BIOBLOG: What’s Your Bacterial Disease? 

Bacteria 2Bacteria 3Bacteria 1

Post your completed “Investigating Bacterial Disease” assignment here! Click on Leave a Reply to add your post.

Remember to include:

  • Name of bacteria involved
  • How the bacteria attacks the body
  • Symptoms
  • Treatment
  • List at least 3 Sources
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68 thoughts on “What’s Your Bacterial Disease?

  1. jillianmpd6

    Ever wonder about the disease strep throat? I’m sure the majority of us have had it at least once in our lives. It is scientifically known as streptococcal pharyngitis, and the bacteria that causes this is called “streptococcal”, hence the first half of it’s name.
    The symptoms of this disease are fever, stomach pain, and swollen, red tonsils. It is really common in children and teenagers. This is an infectious disease, and is easily spread through casual contact like coughing, or even hand shakes. The streptococcal bacteria thrives in the area of the nose and throat, so it is fairly easily spread within schools and work places.
    Strep throat is treated with antibiotics, and that’s pretty much all. The only other thing to do is make sure to get plenty of rest, and you should be fine in a few days with the right antibiotics. Strep throat is as easily curable as it is contagious.

    Sources: http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/lung/strep_throat.html
    http://www.healthcentral.com/cold-flu/h/what-kind-of-bacteria-causes-strep-throat.html
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001663/
    By: Jillian (Batman)

    Reply
    1. DeziB

      Lyme disease is a disease that originates from a tick commonly found in North America and Europe. The bacteria that causes this disease is Borrelia burgdorferi. This tick can be found on deer that feed on blood of animals and humans they can live and spread the bacteria.
      One who lives in or spends time in heavily grassy or woodland areas where these ticks thrive is much more vulnerable to this disease. To be safe and prevent this disease if this previous sentence pertains to you, take proper precautions. This disease is treated by antibiotics and is always recover completely if you treat it, the only difference being how long it takes to recover depending on what stage you catch it in.
      Symptoms of this disease are rashes, flu like symptoms, chills, fever, joint pain, Erythma migraines, and neurological symptoms. Lyme disease works in a simple manner and a typical one at that. The tick from the deer looks for a new host to hop on and stay to feed and thrive. While the tick is thriving you are diving. It takes nutrients and the Borrelia bacterium spreads through the bodily system. Each case of this disease varies in what is affected and the side effects.
      Resources:
      http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/arthritis-lyme-disease?page=3
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lyme-disease/DS00116
      http://lymedisease.org

      Reply
      1. DeziB 3rd period Final

        Lyme disease is a disease that originates from a tick commonly found in North America and Europe. The bacteria that causes this disease is Borrelia burgdorferi. This tick can be found on deer and feed on the blood of humans or animals. These ticks live on humans and carry infectious bacteria. This is a common bacterial infection among people in the U.S.
        Some symptoms of this disease are rashes, flu like symptoms, chills, fever, joint pain, Erythma migraines, and neurological symptoms. The synptoms can range from mild to severe so anything irregular should be reported. Lyme disease works in a simple manner and a typical one at that. The tick from the deer looks for a new host to hop on and stay to feed and thrive. While the tick is thriving on your body you yourself are losing vital nutrients. The tick takes nutrients from the body and the Borrelia bacterium spreads through the bodily system. The side effects are completely unique to the individual and how their body will react to the disease.
        One who lives in or spends time in heavily grassy or woodland areas where these ticks thrive is much more vulnerable to this disease. To be safe and prevent these symptoms, if they pertain to you, take proper precautions. This disease is treated by antibiotics and is always recoverable if treated. The only varying variable is that the stage of the disease determines the recovery period.
        Resources:
        http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/arthritis-lyme-disease?page=3
        http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lyme-disease/DS00116
        http://lymedisease.org

      2. ShaquanM

        ShaquanMperiod 6

        Ever heard of a bacterial disease called “MRSA” ? Well MRSA is a infection caused by some staph bacteria that’s resistant to the antibiotics used to treat staph infections. Majority of these infections occur in people who’ve been in hospitals or health care places.
        MRSA attacks the body by first living in the throat or the nose and then moving to the surface of your skin. When bacteria get in wounds or cuts they cause infections and create boils or abcesses. You can catch MRSA if you have had contact with someone who either has the infection or who is colonised with MRSA bacteria, or by having contact with something that has been contaminated with The bacteria, such as sheets, clothing, sinks, towels and even door handles.
        There are many symptoms of MRSA . A few are skin infections , ulcers or pressure sores , bone infections , and pneumonia. When you witness some these you should contact an ER ASAP. If you aren’t treated right away it can become even worse. Deeper abscesses can affect parts of the body, such as the kidneys, liver and spleen, causing low blood pressure, shivers, weight loss and organ failure.
        On the other hand , MRS can be treated. The diesease can be treated by Certain antibiotics, such as vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. These drugs are usually injected into veins or fed into your blood stream. So it’s never to late to get MRSA treated. Doses are much higher than other infections because of the type of infection it is.

        Resources

        http://www.mayoclinic.org/mrsa/
        http://www.drfosterhealth.co.uk/medical-dictionary/hospital-acquired-infections/mrsa.aspx

  2. savannap5

    Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
    (SavannaP, Period 6)

    Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a serious bacterial disease that affects thousands of people, particularly infants and young children. The bacterium, Bordetella pertussis, causes this disease. Once the bacteria attaches to the mucus membranes of the respiratory tract, it releases several toxins, including pertussis toxin and endotoxin, eventually it causes inflammation in the body. In advanced stages, thick mucus can develop in the lungs and clog air passages, causing severe coughing and making it fairly hard to breathe.
    One may not quickly recognize that they have Pertussis or whooping cough, for the mere fact that during the incubation period, symptoms are relatively similar to that of the common cold. However, within two weeks, a dry persistent cough develops, in turn making breathing a difficult task. This excessive coughing may result in vomiting, dehydration, blue or purple skin around the mouth, low-grade fever, and breathing difficulties. In infants and children, a “whoop” sound is made while breathing shortly after the coughing spell; contrastingly, adults and teenagers experience milder symptoms, such as prolonged coughing without the “whoop” sound.
    There is no cure for Pertussis, or whooping cough. On the other hand, there are some treatment methods that may help victims of this disease. Most doctors suggest using humidifiers, to keep the air moist and help alleviate symptoms. Cough medicines are not recommended, in fact, they may carry harmful side affects to children or infants with this disease. Antibiotics can be used, however, they only treat the infection; they do not prevent or treat the cough itself. Infants and children should be hospitalized during treatment to minimize their risk for developing pneumonia; they may also be hooked up to an IV to help with dehydration. Pertussis should not be taken lightly, for it can cause fatality to anyone who has it.

    Pertussis (Whooping Cough) & Pertussis Vaccine
    Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary
    http://www.nvic.org/vaccines-and-diseases/whooping-cough.aspx

    Moore, K. (2012, 07 13). Whooping Cough (Pertussis).
    Retrieved from:
    http://ask.healthline.com/health/pertussis

    Todar, Kenneth, PhD
    Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology
    http://textbooksofbacteriology.net/pertussis.html

    Reply
  3. AmandaR

    I asked my mother about which bacterial disease she would like to know more about and she chose Bubonic Plague.
    Bubonic Plague also know as “Black Death”. Yersinia pestis is the bacterium that causes the disease. Killed about 1/3 of Europe’s population in the Middle Ages. This bacterium is found in wild rodents, and is transmitted by the bite of a flea infected with the bacterium or inhaling cough droplets from another person infected with the bacterium.
    Bubonic Plague has multiple symptoms including chills, rapid pulse, low blood pressure, headache, seizures, muscle pain, coughing, and lymph gland swelling normally called “bubo”. Bubo is normally found around the groin area, but can occur anywhere. Pain may occur before swelling. Swollen lymph glands are found in 70 percent of patients. Normally it occurs where ever one was bite. The time between being infected and receiving symptoms is normally 2-7 days. Bubonic Plague can spread to the lungs symptoms for Bubonic Plague of the lungs are increased breathing, difficulty breathing, coughing up blood, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). If one is not treated within 24 hours of first symptom death may occur.
    Yersinia bacteria multiplies in humans and injects toxins in to cells making the host unable to fight Bubonic Plague. The injected toxin’s is called YOP (Yersinia Outer membrane Protiens). The bacteria primarily attacks cells of the immune system, also affects cell adhesion. It injects toxins right across the cell’s membrane. Yersinia can travel through the bloodstream, and can cause septic shock.
    Unlike in the Middle Ages when treatment for Bubonic Plague was basically nonexistent because doctors did not know what caused the disease. Today Bubonic Plague can be treated by specific antibiotics called Streptomycin, and Gentamycin. Gentamycin or Gentamicin is a bacteriocidal which means it kills bacterial cells rather than stopping the growth of the bacteria. Gentamicin is normally given by a shot, or a topical treatment. Streptomycin was the first antibiotic used to fight tuberculosis. Streptocymin impedes the function of bacteria cells ribosomes. Streptocymin is administered by deep intramuscular injection.

    Sources: http://plague.emedtv.com/bubonic-plague/bubonic-plague-symptoms-p2.html
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000596.htm
    http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/bact-dis.htm
    http://www.endocytosis.org/Black_Plague/index.html
    http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5161169_gentamycin-work.html
    http://www.bnl.gov/newsroom/news.php?a=24251

    Reply
  4. JustinR 7th period Mrs. Sawyer

    I asked my parents what type of bacteria they have heard of and wanted me to research, and they said staph Infections, but what they really mean to say is Staphylococcus. There are more than 30 species in the staph family of bacteria, and they can cause different kinds of illnesses.Skin infections are the most common. They can look like pimples or boils, may be red, swollen and painful, and sometimes have pus or other drainage. They can turn into impetigo, which turns into a crust on the skin, or cellulitis, a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot. other staph infections can include : Pneumonia, Food poisoning,Toxic shock syndrome, and Blood poisoning.
    How Do People Get Staph Infections? Well, People can get staph infections from contaminated objects, but staph bacteria often spread through skin-to-skin contact . Staph infections can spread from person to person among those who live close together in group situations. When people share towels, bed lining, or even when the air is hot or humid is when people tend to get this disease. Staph infections usually begin as a small area of tenderness, swelling, and redness. Sometimes it begins with an open sore. Other times, there is no break in the skin at all — and it’s anyone’s guess where the bacteria came from. Staph Infections have symptoms as small as a slight fever or maybe a pus filled pimple, But, staph infections can get as serious as having seizures, vomiting, swollen joints, and even confusion.
    Antibiotics are used to treat staph infections. But there’s been a gradual change in how well these antibiotics work. While most staph infections used to be treatable with penicillin, that changed in the 1980s and stronger antibiotics are now used.Cleanliness and good hygiene are the best way to protect yourself against getting staph (and other) infections — including MRSA. You can help prevent staph skin infections by washing your hands frequently and by bathing or showering daily.

    Sources: http://kidshealth.org/teen/infections/bacterial_viral/staph.html#
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/staphylococcalinfections.html
    http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/guide/staph-infection-cellulitis
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/staph-infections/DS00973/DSECTION=symptoms

    Reply
  5. paytons

    Salmonellosis
    Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease associated with the bacteria salmonella. This bacteria was discovered by an American scientist name Salmon, hence the name salmonella. Common symptoms of this disease are diarrhea, cramps, vomiting and fever. Symptoms usually begin to appear about 12 to 72 hours after the infection strikes. It typically only lasts about four to seven days. Each year, there are roughly 40,000 cases of this disease reported.
    Many mild cases take care of themselves within about a week needing no treatment, although, in some people, such as children or elders, antibiotics may be helpful. If the immune system is not strong enough to fight of the bacteria alone, that is when drugs come into play. This disease is most frequently acquired from consuming raw or uncooked meat, chicken, or bad eggs. One can also get salmonella from touching something that has been contaminated with the bacteria, and then putting their fingers in their mouth, although that is not as common.
    This disease is very common in developing countries that have poor hygiene, meaning that salmonella can be picked up from doing things such as international travel. Other ways of getting the disease are living with other people and owning pets, especially birds and reptiles. Salmonella disease is not usually life threatening in itself, but if you notice any complications such as diarrhea, vomiting, or cramps for over a week, a physician should be consulted immediately.
    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/
    http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/tc/salmonellosis-topic-overview
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/salmonella/DS00926/DSECTION=symptoms

    Reply
  6. JakobB

    JakobB

    Period 7

    “Salmonella”
    On our planet, humanity suffers from a variety of diseases that derive from bacterial infections. In the case of Salmonellosis, a bacterial disease and food poisoning acquired from the consumption of products that have been infected during food processing on factory lines, or it is passed on to the carrier by food they have consumed that has been prepared by a chef or restaurant employee of some variety that has not washed his or her hands properly before they proceed to work on your meal. Whilst you may go about your daily life as normal after consuming this bacteria-laden food, you will at some point within the following twelve to seventy-two hours suffer from a variety of symptoms that may or may not include diarrhea, fevers, and abdominal pains. In most cases, a victim will only have to put up with these symptoms for a time span of around four to seven days, but if symptoms last for a period longer than this average, it is highly advised that you proceed to a hospital for treatment.
    If your case is not as severe as those who suffer from the prolonged and increasingly painful straints, there are a few ways for you to help keep your symptoms relatively subdued. Amongst these is the fact that those who suffer from diarrhea, will more than likely also be undergoing dehydration, so it is advised that you be constantly partaking fluids into your body so that you can restore the electrolytes and nutrition that your body needs to function properly. Whilst there are ways to treat your symptoms, there is not yet a vaccine for the disease. However, we are coming close to finding one, thanks to a team of researchers that hail from the University of California. According to the University, the team has identified a total of eight antigens-defined as “molecules in the invading bacteria that trigger an immune response”-common in human infections. This poses the question though if researchers can make a vaccine that is universal to all straints of the bacterial disease, which like all infections, can mutate in various ways. One of these forms of Salmonella is the serotype “Enteritidis”, which according to the CDC is one of the two most recorded straints of the disease found nationwide. In the meantime, there are several antibiotics that can be administered to those who have a hospitalizing strain, which includes “Ampicillin”, “Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole”, and “Ciprofloxacin”.
    Until a vaccine is developed, the government is also doing what it can to monitor the disease. Departments such as the CDC are keeping an eye on the spread of the disease both nationally and internationally. The FDA has increased the specificity of what quality of processed foods and the like our acceptable for distribution to the public.

    http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/tc/salmonellosis-topic-overview

    http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2012/02/a-vaccine-against-salmonella/#.UlCN

    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/
    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/salmonellosis/

    Reply
  7. Savannah

    MRSA

    MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This disease is actually a type of staph bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus, that has built up a resistance to antibiotics used to treat this type of bacteria. This is why part of this diseases name is called Methicillin resistant, because methicillin is a type of antibiotic. MRSA usually causes skin infections, which often develop on the skin, around open sores, cuts, or bites. It can live harmlessly on the skin of someone, except when it gets into the skin because of exposed areas. MRSA infections are transmitted from person to person by direct contact with the skin, area, or clothing.
    Cellulitis, boils, hordeolum, Impetigo, and pus from red and swollen sores are some of the symptoms. Cellulitis is when a small area of redness, pain, swelling, and warmth on the skin begins. This may lead to a person to feel feverish and ill. A hordeolum is a red, very painful bump on the eyelid. An Impetigo skin infection starts as a small blister or pimple, and then develops a honey-colored crust which may itch. There are a couple of symptoms as well like Folliculitis.
    There are different types of names for certain infections, depending on the situation. For example, HA-MRSA (hospital- or health-care-acquired) is where this infection mostly occurs in people whose immune systems have been weakened usually by another disease. But now, healthy people are starting to get the infection, so the doctor calls this community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). This is caused when people touch the same surfaces, have skin-to-skin contact, or share equipment that has not been cleaned.
    MRSA is treated differently depending on the circumstances. Usually a doctor will drain the pus from the abscess in order to clear the infection. Sometimes they will prescribe different medications as well. In some very rare cases, the infection will spread through the body and cause blood and joint infections. This can be fatal for some people. But for healthy people, it’s highly unlikely. MRSA can be treated for most people.

    SavannahP 1st period

    Sources:
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mrsa/ID00049
    http://www.mayoclinic.org/mrsa/
    http://www.medicinenet.com/mrsa_infection/article.htm
    http://kidshealth.org/teen/infections/bacterial_viral/mrsa.html
    http://www.medicinenet.com/mrsa_infection/article.htm#mrsa_infections_facts
    http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?lic=1&ps=207&cat_id=20174&article_set=20992

    Reply
  8. NahairyT

    NahairyT
    Period:1
    Bacterial Disease assignment: Meningitis
    From 1998 to 2007, about 1,500 Americans were infected each year from Meningitis, with a range of 900 to 3,000 cases (1). 11% of those infected will die (1). Meningitis is a tragic bacterial disease. Meningitis is a swelling of the membranes (meninges) covering your brain and spinal cord (2). Some of the causes of bacterial meningitis in the U.S include Haemophilus influenzae (most regularly caused by type b, Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Neisseria meningitides (3). More specifically, in newborns, the most common causes are Group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and less commonly, Listeria monocytogenes. In older kids, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are more often the causes (4).Another bacteria, Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), also can affect the illness but because of widespread childhood vaccination, these cases are rarer (4).
    How does the bacterium cause this disease? That’s simple. These bacteria live in the body, most frequently in the nose and throat, without causing disease (5). But the bacteria can cause meningitis if they spread from infected tissue or get into the bloodstream and travel to the cerebrospinal fluid (A watery fluid that is nonstop produced and absorbed and flows in the ventricles within the brain, around the surface of the brain, and spinal cord (5)) or the tissues (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord (6). Surprisingly, Meningitis is almost as contagious as a cold. Probably anything you do can get someone else infected. Common everyday activities can spread meningococcal disease (7). When you think of common everyday activities, do you think from sharing drinks (That “Yummy” backwash) to that smooch you gave your family? The germs that cause it can be passed from one person to another through coughing and sneezing and through close contact (8).
    What are the symptoms and how is treated? Meningitis can actually be divided into two subgroups: viral and bacterial. Both subgroups have the same symptoms. These symptoms include: stiffness, fever, headache, confusion, light sensitivity, nausea, rash, irritability, loss of appetite, and seizures (9). All of these are caused because of the weakness in the brain, skeletal and immune system. Which weakness do you think corresponds to the effect/ symptom? The headache, confusion, light sensitivity and seizure connect to the brain. The skeletal system will be obviously the stiffness and irritability, while the immune system makes the fever, nausea, rash, and loss of appetite. These symptoms should be consulted with your doctor as soon as possible even if it’s just “nothing”. The sooner you have the awareness, the sooner something can be done. Vaccines can prevent some of the bacterial infections that cause meningitis (9). Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics. A general arterial antibiotic with a corticosteroid to bring down the inflammation may be prescribed even before all the test results are in (10). Now are you going to take better care of yourself or what?
    Sources:
    1)http://www.nmaus.org/meningitis/
    2)http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118
    3)http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html
    4) http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/lung/meningitis.html
    5) http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7529
    6) http://children.webmd.com/vaccines/tc/meningitis-cause
    7) http://www.voicesofmeningitis.com/get-the-facts-the-basics.html
    8) http://children.webmd.com/vaccines/tc/meningitis-topic-overview
    9) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/meningitis.html
    10)http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/meningitis/hic_bacterial_meningitis.aspx

    Reply
  9. ReneishaP

    ReneishaP
    Meningitis 1st period

    Meningitis is inflammation of the coverings around the brain and spinal cord. Some of the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States includes Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Neisseria meningitis. The germs that cause it can be contagious and some bacteria can spread through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions. This disease may show up in a person by a fever, headache and stiff neck. Other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light and confusion can appear quickly or over several days.
    Meningitis is generally caused by infection of viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and certain organisms. Anatomical defects or weak immune systems may be linked to recurrent bacterial meningitis. In the majority of some cases the cause is a virus. However, some non-infectious causes of meningitis also exist.
    Bacterial meningitis can be treated effectively with antibiotics. Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death and vaccines can prevent some of the bacterial infections. These medicines usually are given through a vein (intravenously, or IV) to treat meningitis. Antibiotics are given only when bacteria are causing the infection. Giving antibiotics when they are not needed may cause drug resistance.

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov
    http://www.mayoclinic.com
    http://www.kidshealth.org

    Reply
  10. CalebG

    CalebG
    Period 5
    Sawyer
    Typhoid (Typhoid fever)
    Typhoid, or typhoid fever, is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid was most commonly known when sanitation was poor, around the time of Jamestown. It affects over 17 million a year throughout the world. It is spread through contamination of water and food from the body the infected bodily fluids and waste. With the new invention of medicines, centuries ago, typhoid fever has decreased it more developed countries, but still is a great concern for less developed countries.

    Salmonella Typhi is the cause of the Typhoid fever. It was discovered by Karl J. Erberth and infects the liver, spleen, and bloodstream in humans. It primarily affects less developed countries without high sanitation or antibiotics. Over 107 forms of this bacterium have been discovered.

    The bacteria Salmonella Typhi causes the Typhoid Fever. It consists of a sudden fever, headache, nausea, and loss of appetite. In a more server case, diarrhea and an enlarged spleen can occur. It is very dangerous dieses untreated but is also very curable if treated soon enough. It is commonly treated by avoiding contaminated water or food. Also proper hygiene can reduce the numbers infected. In today’s society we know have antibiotics to treat Salmonella Typhi.

    Citation
    “Salmonella Typhi.” Salmonella Typhi. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2013. .

    Reply
  11. DevonC

    DevonC: Per # 7, Salmonella

    Salmonella is a somewhat common disease that can be very dangerous if it not treated or known about. The bacteria involved are called “Salmonella”, which have been known to cause this disease for around 100 years. Every single year there are around 42,000 people ho will get Salmonella. You usually get this disease by eating something containing eggs and/or undercooked meat, and the disease acts very quickly on the body, usually appearing within 3 days. The bacteria itself makes it’s way into a person’s intestines and start to shed through a person’s feces.

    In most cases a person with this bacterial disease will develop fever, and very bad diarrhea. If it is a type of disease that also dehydrates you, the person will need to seek some medical treatment. After the disease, the person will have abdominal cramps. These cramps can go away as quickly as a half a day or be as long as 3 days.

    If you have the type of salmonella that does not dehydrate you, then the length of the disease depend on the length of the cramps. If it is the type that dehydrates you it takes longer. Not only that but you will need to seek medical treatment for the disease. In some cases the disease can be life threatening if not treated quickly. These types of treatments require fluids to be put into a person’s body, but usually a doctor will give you some antibiotics of some sort to kill the bacteria.

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/salmonella/DS00926/DSECTION=treatments%2Dand%2Ddrugs

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/salmonella/DS00926

    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/salmonella/DS00926/DSECTION=symptoms

    Reply
  12. MisaelO

    The bacterial disease my mom was curious about was the Lyme disease. The bacterium which causes this disease is Borrelia Burgdorferi which was named after the scientist who discovered it. This bacterium is spirochetes similar to that of a syphilis bacterium.
    The Borrelia Burgdorferi usually is spread to humans from ticks that have bit Lyme infected mice and deer. When it attacks the cell, it disrupts normal cell activities. This bacterium has a triple cell wall covered by glycol proteins, this may seem insignificant but our immune system attacks bacteria by sensing proteins. Our bodies are therefore unable to identify it. The bacterium is propelled by internal flagella. In the long run, the bacteria will produce neurotoxins that interfere with functions of nervous and brain cells.
    Symptoms for this disease may be experienced within a few weeks or even months or years. Typically, a rash will occur around the site of the area. Since this disease mostly affects the nervous system, most symptoms are not physical but mental. Most people will experience memory loss, fatigue, headache and even irritability just to name a few. This occurs since the spirochetes move throughout the body, even pretending to be other cells and eventually make their way to the brain.
    Treatment can be given easily if Lyme disease is detected early. Antibiotics are given to these patients. These antibiotics will then attack the cell membrane to get to the ribosomes to force them to stop producing proteins. They will also interfere with production of DNA to stop it from reproducing by division. The treatment is given 2-4 months because the Borrelia Burgdorferi is slow to reproduce so the antibiotics can’t get to it as fast.
    By, MisaelO

    Sources:
    http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/bact-dis.htm
    http://www.lymepa.org/DF___HK_Antibiotics_Slides_6_per_page.pdf
    http://lymedisease.org/lyme101/lyme_disease/lyme_diagnosis.html
    http://www.lymeneteurope.org/info/the-complexities-of-lyme-disease

    Reply
  13. BreanneD

    Ms. Noderer

    Biology

    10/7/13

    Necrotizing Fasciitis is a “flesh eating” disease that can be caused by several different types of bacteria. The name Necrotizing Fasciitis means “to make tissue dead”, so in essence NF is a bacterial disease that attacks the body’s soft tissue and fascia. NF can occur after the body has gone through some type of trauma or surgery but that doesn’t happen in all cases. All it takes is being exposed to the bacteria while under the right set of conditions, because there are different strains of the bacteria that cause NF and some are more powerful than others.

    In order to contract Necrotizing Fasciitis, the “right set of conditions” are having an opening in the skin or an abrasion so that the bacteria can enter (although some rare cases have been reported where no trauma has occurred), the body has come into contact with the bacteria, either through contact with someone carrying the bacteria or because the bacteria was already present on their person, and it is usually an invasive strain of the strep virus. NF doesn’t actually eat flesh, though that’s what the disease appears to do because of how rapidly it multiplies and releases toxins throughout the body and kills the soft tissue. The strep bacteria hides itself inside of the body’s innate immune system which allows it to spread at an alarming rate.

    The symptoms related to NF are excruciating pain in the affected area, confusion, dehydration, low blood pressure, and a high fever. If NF is detected before toxic shock, the bacteria can be removed by surgically cutting out the affected flesh, tissue, and fat without having to full amputate a limb, which is often necessary in advanced cases. If NF isn’t successfully diagnosed and treated, it can be fatal as it causes the organs in the body to go through systematic shock. Necrotizing Fasciitis is a nonrecurring disease so once the strep bacteria is removed from the body, it’s gone altogether. During the treatment of NF, the areas that were surgically opened are left open for a length of time to ensure that no more tissue is being attacked. When there is no threat of the disease lingering, the wounds are normally closed by grafting skin over them.

    When the infection is cause by the Group A strep bacteria, the disease can spread within days and can have devastating effects.

    http://www.topix.net/health/flesh-eating-bacteria

    http://www.flesheatingbacteria.net/

    http://nnff.org/nnff_survivor.htm
    http://www.medicinenet.com/necrotizing_fasciitis/article.htm#necrotizing_fasciitis_flesh-eating_disease_facts

    Reply
  14. BellaB

    Salmonellosis
    Period 4

    Salmonellosis is a common disease caused by the salmonella bacteria. Approximately 40,000 cases are reported in the U.S. every year. Humans frequently become infected with salmonella through contaminated water or food such as raw meat, raw eggs and contaminated fruits and vegetables. Contaminated foods usually look and smell normal. Symptoms of salmonellosis include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, headache and cramps. These symptoms last from 8 to 72 hours. Most people recover within a few days, but the symptoms can last for several months.
    To avoid salmonellosis do not eat raw or undercooked eggs, avoid unpasteurized dairy products, wash fruits and vegetables before eating them, and wash your hands after handling reptiles, or small rodents. However, most salmonella outbreaks since the 1990’s have been linked to poultry.
    There is no cure for salmonellosis, but you must manage the symptoms until the bacteria passes out of your body. Prevent dehydration by drinking a rehydration drink, and eat your usual diet, antibiotics are normally not needed. But, antibiotics might be necessary for people with severe illness. To test for salmonellosis a doctor will ask a patient about their symptoms and if necessary will take laboratory tests.
    Once the salmonella bacteria enters a person’s body it gets into the lymph nodes. This is unfortunate because the lymph nodes are necessary for fighting bacteria. Salmonella causes “chaotic responses” in the lymph nodes and shuts down the immune system.

    Sources:
    http://www.nowpublic.com/health/how-salmonella-does-its-dirty-work
    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/
    http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/tc/salmonellosis-topic-overview
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/salmonella/DS00926/DSECTION=causes
    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/diagnosis.html

    Reply
  15. williamS

    The Bubonic Plague
    By WilliamS
    Period 4
    The bacterial disease that is often considered the worst in European history is the Bubonic Plague. Sometimes called The Black Death, the Bubonic Plague was the disease that singlehandedly nearly wiped entire countries off the face of the Earth. In the Middle Ages, entire populations died as a result of the spreading of this catastrophic disease.
    This bacteria originally started from a variety of rodents, the most common being rats and mice, called Yersinia Pestis. The Plague would then spread via fleas from the animal to a human being, and, as many people had lice, it was a very common disease. It could be passed on from a human by saliva or would become airborne, making the death toll immeasurable. The bacteria enter the body and latch onto tiny glands in the immune system called lymph nodes. As the bacteria grows and duplicates, the immune system deteriorates over time, making the infected person more susceptible to other diseases. The word bubonic comes from the name of the infected lymph nodes, which are classified as buboes.
    Unfortunately, a person infected with the Bubonic Plague has little time to live. Depending on where the bacteria are located, a person usually lasts three to five days after the symptoms appear. The symptoms of this disease are grotesque in their own way. The first signs start with a meager amount of coughing, a slight fever, and chills when hot. As the days grow old, however, boils and puss-filled lesions appear all over the body. During the final stages, the victims of this vile contagion begin coughing up blood mixed with thick mucus. In the Middle Ages, people were dying faster than they could be buried, so bodies were left out in the street, where more rodents would feast on them.
    After nearly a century of devastation, the plague seemed to become less prominent in the world until it practically disappeared due to extermination of rodents. Today, it is extremely rare to find a case of the Bubonic Plague, but there is no known cure to it, and as a result, cases have erupted in odd spots around the world. If the Plague were to infect someone, treatment has to be sought within a day of the infection, otherwise it will prove fatal. In this day and age, there are antibiotics which will treat and eventually stamp out the bacteria. “These antibiotics include streptomycin, gentamicin, and doxycycline.”All antibiotics kill the bacterial cells and enter the body by injection. It is a miracle that the plague practically is non-existent in today’s society. Still, one must not forget that if a case were to break out, there is a fifty percent chance of living or dying.

    Sources
    http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/bact-dis.htm
    http://history.howstuffworks.com/historical-events/black-death5.htm
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000596.htm

    Reply
  16. EmmaD

    Bacterial Disease: Meningitis-EmmaD (1st period)
    Meningitis is spread through human to human contact as the disease is contagious. The bacteria involved in meningitis are Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacteria can be spread through ways such as kissing, stool, and infected blood. The bacterium mimics human cells to get in a person’s immune system.
    Symptoms of older children and adults include vomiting, nausea, sensitivity to light, confusion, headaches, fever, soreness, and a “chill”. Also, a rash can appear that rapidly spreads, and make look like bruises. These rashes can fade, but reappear later on. In babies, symptoms include moaning cries, difficulty sleeping, fidgeting, and blotchy skin. If the sick person has a rash, you can press a glass against the rash, and if it fades, the person does not have a meningitis rash. If the coloring stays the same, it is a meningitis rash.
    Bacterial meningitis is deadly if treatment is not sought right away. Antibiotics are used to treat meningitis. Oxygen therapy may be given which is handled through face masks, a nose cannula, a tube, a hood, or a tent. Sedatives are given if patients are restless and irritable. Fluid control is given if a patient is unable to drink, which is when liquid is fed through an IV.
    http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/9276.php
    http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html
    http://www.idph.state.il.us/public/hb/hbmening.htm

    Reply
  17. DanB

    The Bubonic Plague
    Yersinia Pestis
    Should one have the intense displeasure of thinking about infectious diseases, the bubonic plague, a prolific and not-so-subtle serial killer, certainly comes to mind. In the impoverished Dark Ages and onwards, amid the newly constructed stone cathedrals lurked the progeny and ancestors of filth and squalor. This vessel of archaic suffering, the multispecies mother ship of some historically antique and geologically modern primal fear, the causers of the rosy, the proverbial posy, the ashes, the falling, the mass graves, fire, sepsis, coughing, pus, mud, affliction, duality; our mammalian ally, but infernal bearer of our loathing- the rodents.
    Or perhaps, theatrics aside, specifically what lived on the rodents. As a defining moment in the history of plagues (be they bubonic, Justinian or otherwise), the isolation of Yersinia Pestis in 1894 became a veritable breakthrough in the understanding of hyper infectious diseases. The scientists who studied plague victims always noticed one thing they had in common (aforementioned plights not included); being the flea bites they had on their bodies. To fully comprehend the scope of what was happening while this research was going on, we must step into a time we thankfully cannot truly step into.
    While the doctors were getting excited about the possibility of treating this awful infection, through some infinitely massive void in time and space, the temporal continuation of the 1300s sat in ostentatious fear. And in this singular, swirling, blue nothingness of hopelessness and despair, we’ll create from the mountains of trash and bodies, a reanimated character whom (for purposes of explanation) we will name Henry. God help Henry.
    Henry was born to two middle-class merchants in 1320. He was more privileged than the other peasants, and came to know his place in medieval Italy at a young age. He was apprenticed by his father in the noble art of cart making at the age of 8. All progressed well and time retained its morbid inertia, until Henry’s father was killed in a cart accident in the year 1342. He and his mother were cast onto a downhill financial slope, leaving them another of thousands of peons.
    Henry continued the cart making as best he could, but never had the talent his father did. Moreover, he was losing customers in neighboring Sicily from a mysterious illness by the name of “Black Death”. Like most of the European population at the time, Henry was never concerned about contracting the disease, as he had lived an honorable life, and God would surely not punish him with so terrible a demise. Nevertheless, in 1346, Henry awoke to find his mother in bed, complaining of nausea, fever and incessant aching. By afternoon, she had contacted a hacking cough, a voluminous outpouring of vomit, and the seeds of the infamous purple boils. That evening, the boils grew to hideous, egg-sized abominations, and Henry’s mother was racked by agony. So continued the degeneration of her health, until 72 hours after her first symptoms, she died.
    Henry was a busy man in the latter half of the 1340s. So many carts were needed to transport so many bodies. The air was always ripe with the smell of corpses and a permanent fog draped itself over the dilapidated houses. Rats frolicked in the horrid reams of discarded women, men, and children, the fleas in tow, hoping with indiscriminant glee from rodent, to human, to rodent. Henry’s last look at the world was his dark, barren house on an empty street. While he was sleeping, a flea jumped off a passing mouse and proceeded to find its next meal in lamentable Henry. Henry was gone before morning.
    And so ends our dreadful visit to days bygone. Today, Y. pestis is combated with intense regimens of antibiotics. This is necessary because the bacteria flood our infection-detecting cells with toxins that kill them off. Thankfully, due to the rise of good sanitation and hygiene, we as North Americans don’t have much to worry about. But unfortunately in Africa and parts of Asia, the diseases still kills about a hundred people every year. Even still, this number is decreasing in most places in those regions, but is still prevalent in the poorest.
    As illustrated, the long and pus-filled history of the Bubonic Plague is forever immortalized in our books, minds, and class four biomedical research facilities. Its efficient techniques for bodily conquest have made it one of the most feared bacteria in the world, a staple of the 14th century, spread on furry ships lurking in sewers and pits.

    Sources:
    biology.clc.uc.edu
    science.nationalgeographic.com
    history.com

    Reply
  18. Emily

    EmilyH, Period 1

    Vibro vulnificus is a bacterium that is also classified in the same family as those that cause cholera. It normally lives in warm seawater and is part of a group of vibrios that are called “halophilic” because they require salt to thrive. When in contact with the bacterium in shallow warm waters it can cause serious wound infections if there is a small wound present on the human body; after infecting one part of the body it will progress to infect the whole body. When a person becomes infected with Vibro vulnificus the bacteria begins to travel down the bloodstream and multiply within in the body; after three days symptoms can occur. The period between becoming infected and the start of Vibrio Vulnificus symptoms is called the incubation period. The symptoms of Vibrio Vulnificus infection vary based on the illness or wound infection. Symptoms can include body aches, chills, fever, decrease in blood pressure, and blistering skin lesions; these symptoms are sudden and can cause a rapid decline in health. Symptoms of a wound infection of Vibrio Vulnificus include swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the wound, and can progress to affect the whole body. Treatment for Vibrio Vulnificus can include intensive antibiotic therapy twice a day, and aggressive support therapy in the intensive care setting. Amputations have been shown to reduce mortality and reduce hospitalization, and aggressive wound care is essential. Vibrio Vulnificus infections are commonly fatal; if treatment is delayed the mortality rates will increase from 33 to 53 percent.

    Reply
  19. FaithT

    Salmonellosis is a common bacterial disease classified as a food poisoning that can be caused by contact with raw meat, raw eggs, peanut butter, and much more. Salmonellosis has been known to cause disease for over 100 years and if left untreated can be fatal. Symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps last anywhere from 4-7 days without treatment but if the bacteria spreads to any other part of the body, the patient needs to be hospitalized and treated with antibiotics. The bacteria causing the disease is called salmonella and was discovered by a scientist named Salmon for which it was named. This bacterial disease is reported in the united states about 42,000 times a year and is many times associated with a recall of a product or mal preparation.
    Salmonella is the bacteria at work within this disease. It attacks the stomach and intestines and sometimes spreads to other parts of the body when more serious. The bacteria is ingested from an outside source and inflames the walls of the intestinal track which causes diarrhea and all other symptoms. It is known to latch to the tissue of the organs and infect them with the disease.
    Usually Salmonellosis runs its course within a week without treatment but if symptoms continue antibiotics are needed to cure the infection. One of the antibiotics used to treat this bacterial disease is ampicillin. The antibiotic is usually only used if the bacteria spreads into the blood stream. Symptoms occur 1-3 days after infection and last for about a week. Some symptoms include diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.

    http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/tc/salmonellosis-topic-overview
    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/index.html

    Reply
  20. EmilyH

    EmilyH, Period 1

    Vibro vulnificus is a bacterium that is also classified in the same family as those that cause cholera. It normally lives in warm seawater and is part of a group of vibrios that are called “halophilic” because they require salt to thrive. This bacteria is a rare cause of disease but has been said to have been underreported.
    When in contact with the bacterium in shallow warm waters it can cause serious wound infections if there is a small wound present on the skinof the human body; after infecting one part of the body it will progress to infect the whole body. When a person becomes infected with Vibro vulnificus the bacteria begins to travel down the bloodstream and multiply within in the body; after three days symptoms can occur. The period between becoming infected and the start of Vibrio Vulnificus symptoms is called the incubation period. This bacteria has also contaminated raw seafood such as oysters, and shellfish.
    The symptoms of Vibrio Vulnificus infection vary based on the illness or wound infection. Symptoms can include body aches, chills, fever, decrease in blood pressure, and blistering skin lesions; these symptoms are sudden and can cause a rapid decline in health. Symptoms of a wound infection of Vibrio Vulnificus include swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the wound, and can progress to affect the whole body. An infection from Vibro Vulnificus can be diagnosed by stool, wound, or blood cultures and can be more deadly in patients with pre-existing health problems (liver, blood,etc.) These infections may also lead to skin breakdown and ulceration.
    Treatment for Vibrio Vulnificus can include intensive antibiotic therapy twice a day, and aggressive support therapy in the intensive care setting. Amputations have been shown to reduce mortality and reduce hospitalization, and aggressive wound care is essential. Vibrio Vulnificus infections are commonly fatal; if treatment is delayed the mortality rates will increase greatly.

    Sources:
    1.http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/vibriov/
    2.http://iai.asm.org/content/77/5/1723.full
    3.http://bacteria.emedtv.com/vibrio-vulnificus/vibrio-vulnificus-p2.html
    4. http://textbookofbacteriology.net/V.vulnificus.html

    Reply
  21. NoahH

    NoahH 1st Period
    Lyme Disease is the most common disease that comes from ticks in North America and Europe. Lyme Disease is caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi, a bacterium which Deer Ticks may carry. You’re most likely to get the disease when spending time in a place where ticks thrive, such as grasslands and forests. People infected with Lyme disease may experience flu-like symptoms that can include a stiff neck, chills, fever, swollen lymph nodes, headaches, fatigue, muscle aches, and joint pain. Ring-like rashes are also common in the area where the tick bit. Later on as the disease develops, nerve problems including arthritis can occur. Treatment includes a 14 to 28 day course of a specific antibiotic suited towards your physical health. The bacteria gets into the skin via the tick, and then attacks. Prevention includes wearing long sleeved clothing, bug spray, wearing light colored clothing, and not going into heavily wooded areas. Or just stay inside, that’s what I do.
    Sources:
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lyme-disease/DS00116
    http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/arthritis-lyme-disease
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lyme-disease/DS00116/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
    http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/lyme-disease

    Reply
  22. JakeF

    JakeF
    10/7/13
    p.4
    Staphylococcus Report
    Staphylococcus aureus, commonly referred to as staph, is a group of bacteria that resembles grapes or round berries. These bacteria are gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, usually unencapsulated cocci. There are 30 different types of staph that have the ability to infect humans, but the most common type that infects is staphylococcus aureus. Anyone can get a staph infection. Direct contact with an infected area or the sharing of bandages, razors, etc. are common transmission routes for staph.
    Skin infections of staph usually results in a boil, abscess, or furuncle. When staph enters the blood, it can cause fevers, low blood pressure, and chills. While skin infections are the most common type of disease produced by staph, it can also cause impetigo, cellulitis, or scalded skin syndrome. When staph enters the bloodstream, it can cause sepsis, pneumonia, and osteomyelitis.
    Staph infections on the skin are treated with an antibiotic ointment, abscesses are surgically drained, and more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics. There is also methicillin-resistant strain of staphylococcus that is resistant to methicillin, penicillin, amoxicillin, and oxacillin. This type of infection is called MRSA. MRSA can be spread by direct physical contact and through the air. Mupirocin has been effective in eliminating MRSA from the nose of healthy carriers

    Reply
  23. ShakiaL

    ShakiaL
    6th Period

    Human African trypanosomiasis
    Human African trypanosomiasis is a disease also known as sleeping sickness which is caused by the germ Trypanosoma protozoa. There are 2 types of the Human African trypanosomiasis diseases which go by Rhodesian and Gambian. The tsetse fly carries the African trypanosomiasis disease. Tsetse flies get the infection from antelopes or cows. The Rhodesian disease doesn’t affect the antelopes health whatsoever. The protozoa soon harbors in the flies salivary glands and then it is ready to be released to humans. When an infected tsetse fly bites you, the infection spreads through your blood and you are now infected. Your central nervous system will be affected.
    This disease doesn’t occur here in the U.S., but only in Africa. (If you travel to Africa and get bit by a tsetse fly then you may get it.) Symptoms mostly occur between the first and fourth week of getting bitten by the tsetse fly. Between the second and third day after being bitten a sore should appear with pain, redness, and swelling but they are mostly ignored. Some general symptoms are fevers, headaches, and sleepiness. Other symptoms are mood swings, sweating, anxiety, and drowsiness during the day. In the first stage, a rash with intense itching and mental confusion may occur. Most symptoms are because they immune system is attempting to get rid of the invading organism. Weight loss may occur, and in children, seizures. In the 2nd stage, the most common symptoms are muscle tightness and imbalance when walking.
    Without treating this disease will lead to death. Of course depending on which type (Rhodesian or Gambian) of Human African trypanosomiasis and what stage (1 or 2) your medication will vary. In the first stage of Human African trypanosomiasis (Gambian), Pentamidine is recommended. Other treatments for this disease (both stage 1 and 2) are suramin or eflornithine, melarsoprol or eflornithine. If you do have this disease there are follow up treatments. For the Rhodesian disease, a lumbar puncture is required every 3 months for the first year. For the Gambian disease, a lumbar puncture is required every 6 months for 2 years.

    Sources:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002338/#adam_001362.disease.causes
    http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Human+African+trypanosomiasis
    http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/african-trypanosomiasis
    http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/sleepingsickness/treatment.html

    Reply
  24. AlexM

    AlexM
    1st Period

    Meningococcal Disease

    Meningococcal disease can be described as any illness caused by a bacterium called Neisseria meningitides, also known as meningococcus. The more well-known disease caused by this bacteria is called meningococcal meningitis, or meningitis for short. The bacteria usually infects the lining of the brain, and the spinal cord. However, the bacteria can cause other, more dire illnesses such as bloodstream infections.

    Meningococcus bacteria are spread by exchange of respiratory and throat secretions like spit. Symptoms of meningococcal disease are usually sudden fever, headache, and stiff neck. It can also begin with symptoms similar to those of the flu. It can also cause vomiting, nausea, sensitivity to light, confusion, and rashes. Despite meningitis being a serious disease, it can be treated with proper antibiotics that prevent serious illness and reduce the spread of infection between people. Fast medical attention is important if meningococcal disease is suspected.

    It is highly recommended to keep up to date with the proper vaccines in order to have the best defense against meningococcal disease. Getting plenty of rest and shying away from direct contact with people who are sick can also help in preventing meningococcal disease.

    Reply
  25. ElizabethQ

    ElizabethQ
    Period 6
    “Investigating Bacterial Disease”

    Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease that is a result caused by Salmonella, bacteria that lives in the intestinal tracks of animals. Even though the animals may appear well taken care of, Salmonella can still be present within the animal, and the bacteria may be passed on to the human.
    It is ordinarily spread throughout the intake of food that is tainted by the bacteria. Also, some products made for pets may be contaminated with many germs, including Salmonella. Depending on how healthy and strong your immune system is, the disease can be less likely to affect your body. The best way to keep yourself clean from the bacteria is to wash your hands after animal contact (especially the stool).
    The symptoms of the disease go from fevers and stomach pain to diharrea. All of these start soon, within the first three days of infection, and end about after a weeks’ time.
    The infection usually will resolve itself out after a week or two without treatment. Drinking lots of water and keeping yourself hydrated is a must.
    Researching about this disease was helpful for me because as a student in agriculture, handling animals and animal feces is a regular thing…

    SOURCES:
    http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/salmonellosis.htm
    http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/salmonellosis/

    Reply
  26. AmberM

    Meningitis
    By: AmberM

    Meningitis is an infection that results in swelling and irritation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. There are over 50 kinds of bacteria that can cause meningitis, but the most common is Meningococcal. You can pick up this bacteria by someone that already has it coughing or sneezing on you. The bacteria mimic the human cells to get into the body. A specific protein on the surface of a common bacterial pathogen allows the bacteria to leave the bloodstream and enter the brain, initiating the deadly infection known as meningitis. Meningitis is a contagious disease that can be life threatening if not seen by a doctor immediately.

    The most common symptoms of either form of meningitis include:
    fever, severe headaches, stiff and painful neck, vomiting, confusion and decreased level of consciousness, and seizures. Other symptoms of meningitis include: sluggishness, muscle aches and weakness, and strange feelings (such as tingling) or weakness throughout the body, eye sensitivity and eye pain from bright lights, skin rash, and dizziness. Babies, young children, older adults, and people with other medical conditions may have different symptoms of meningitis. In babies, a fever, decreased appetite, rash, vomiting, a shrill cry, a stiff body and bulging soft spots on their heads that are not caused by crying. Young children may act like they have the flu, cough, or have trouble breathing. Older adults and people with other medical conditions may have only a slight headache and fever, may not feel well and have little energy.

    The treatment for this is antibiotics. These medicines usually are given through a vein to treat meningitis. Antibiotics are given only when bacteria are causing the infection. Giving antibiotics when they are not needed may cause drug resistance.

    Websites: Medline Plus.com, CDC.com, WebMD.com, Sciencedaily.com,

    Reply
  27. LelandD

    Poliomyelitis. Commonly referred to as Polio was recognized by Jakob Hein in 1840 and was identified in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner. Polio is a viral disease that spreads from person to person and was the biggest and most dreaded childhood disease in the 19th century.. It is not known where it originates but it is known that it causes inflammation in the spinal region that blocks the electrical signals sent from your brain, to the limb or extremity. 90 percent of people infected have no symptoms. In 1950 polio vaccines reduced the amount of people who were infected with the disease at a young age but still cases existed. Luckily enhanced vaccination in the early 2000’s paved the way to a near global eradication of the virus entirely.
    – LelandD. Period 6

    Sources:
    http://www.cdc.gov/polio/
    http://www.polioeradication.org/
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/polioandpostpoliosyndrome.html
    http://www.endpolio.org/

    Reply
  28. MadisonM

    MadisonM
    Bacterial Meningitis 7th Period

    Bacterial Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, which are the three membranes that envelope the brain and spinal cord. The funtion of these membranes is to protect the central nervous sytem. Bacterial Meningitis is usually caused by the infection of viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and certain organisms. The main bacteria that cause Bacterial Meningitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Listeria monocytogenes. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, young children and adults in the United States, however there are vaccines for all of these bacteria.
    The symptoms of bacterial meningitis usually depend on the age of the person infected. In most people over the age of two, the symptoms could include sudden high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, vomiting or nausea with headache, confusion or difficulty concentrating, seizures, sleepiness or difficulty waking up, sensitivity to light, lack of interest in drinking and eating, and skin rash in some cases. Infants also seem to be at higher risk for bacterial meningitis than people in other age groups. The symptoms of bacterial meningitis in infants include a high-pitched, moaning cry, a bulging fontenelle, being difficult to wake, floppy and listless or stiff with jerky movements, refusing feeds, difficult breathing, pale or blotchy skin, and red or purple spots that do not fade under pressure. Bacterial Meningitis can cause serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disabilities. The symptoms of bacterial meningitis can appear quickly or over several days. It typically develops within 3-7 days after exposure.
    Although Bacterial Meningitis can be a serious disease, it is still treatable. BUt the treatment depends on things like the age of the patient, the severity of the infection, the organisms that are causing the disease, and the other medical conditions that are present in the patient. The most popular treatment is antibiotics, which are usually administered through an IV. Some other treatment options are Corticosteroids, Acetaminophen, which is effective in bringing the patient’s temperature down, Anti-convulsants (if the patient has seizures), oxygen therapy, fluid control, blood tests, and sedatives. Bacterial Meningitis can be a serious disease and if someone thinks they have it, they should contact a doctor to be tested.
    Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118/DSECTION=symptoms
    http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html#causes
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/bacterial_meningitis.htm

    Reply
  29. JuliaS

    Cholera

    Though it is an infection most in developed nations think rarely of, Cholera still poses a very real threat to those in developing nations because the bacteria, Vibrio Cholerae, is passed among humans from the consumption of food and water contaminated by infected sewage. Once consumed the bacteria must pass through the acidic human digestive track to get to the small intestine, a difficult feat, as it is not acid resistant. Vibrio Cholerae is only able to get through when the quantity of the bacteria that is introduced at once is large. In the small intestine Vibrio Cholerae releases an enterotoxin that then causes fluid and electrolytes to be released into the upper small intestine that the lower bowel cannot adequately absorb. It is this toxin that can prove fatal to humans rather than the bacteria by it self.
    The main symptom of cholera is watery diarrhea, however severity of symptoms varies greatly. As many as 80% of those infected never know that they are which in some ways is more dangerous because their feces are still contaminated despite a lack of symptoms. People who do exhibit symptoms develop them in the first few days of infection. The diarrhea typically associated with cholera can cause severe dehydration as most of the body’s fluids and electrolytes leave the body. This dehydration and electrolyte imbalance then causes exhaustion, thirst, dry skin, irregular heartbeat, shock and muscle cramps. Bouts of nausea and vomiting that last for several hours may also accompany diarrhea and dehydration. In children cholera can cause fever, drowsiness to the point of coma and convulsions. The severity of symptoms mandates treatment.
    Treatment of cholera involves a lot of rehydration to replace fluids and electrolytes lost due to cholera. Many treated are rehydrated with a solution that contains electrolytes and clean water. Those who are too severely dehydrated for oral rehydration can be treated with intravenous fluids. Antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin are not always necessary but are used to reduce diarrhea. Cholera can kill within hours so timely treatment is vital and since cholera is most prevalent in places that lack modern sanitation, cholera is generally most prevalent in places that also lack modern medicine, a luxury many in developed nations take for granted.

    Works Cited:

    Thaker, Vidhu. “Cholera.” Medscape. WebMD LLC, 19 Jul 2011. Web. 5 Oct 2013.

    “Cholera.” John Hopkins Medicine. The Johns Hopkins University. Web. 5 Oct 2013.

    “Cholera.” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 30 Mar 2011. Web. 5 Oct 2013.

    Reply
  30. fancypasta

    AnnaMarieF, Period 7, Leprosy

    Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease, is caused by the slowly growing mycobacterium leprae. It comes in two forms: tuberculoid and lepromatous. It can be contracted by close and repeated contact with nose or mouth droplets of someone with the disease. It is not very contagious, but children are more vulnerable to contract it than an adult.
    Some of the symptoms of leprosy include skin lesions and nerve damage. This can lead to muscle weakness and numbness of the hands, arms, feet, and legs. If not treated, it can permanently damage the skin, nerves, arms, legs, feet, and eyes. Complications include permanent nerve damage and disfigurement.
    Depending on the type of leprosy, many different treatments can be used. The disease has been around since biblical times, so it is curable. Antibiotics, such as dapsone or fluoroquinolones can be effective. Anti-inflamatory drugs can be useful towards the lesions. Thalidomide is occasionally used to suppress the immune system.

    Sources:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002323/
    http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/guide/leprosy-symptoms-treatments-history
    http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/guide/leprosy-symptoms-treatments-history?page=2

    Reply
  31. IsaiahI

    IsaiahI 7th period
    Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can be found naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals around the world. Although it is rare, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

    The symptoms of anthrax depend on the type of infection and can take anywhere from 1 day to more than 2 months to appear. All types of anthrax have the potential, if untreated, to spread throughout the body and cause severe illness and even death. Symptoms include a group of small blisters or bumps that may itch, painless skin sore (ulcer) with a black center that appears after the small blisters or bumps. Most often the sore will be on the face, neck, arms, or hands. Swelling can occur around the sore.

    Doctors have several options for treating patients with anthrax, including antibiotics and antitoxin. Patients with serious cases of anthrax will need to be hospitalized. They may require aggressive treatment, such as continuous fluid drainage and help breathing through mechanical ventilation.

    Reply
  32. anna

    AnnaC P-6
    Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the thin lining that surrounds your brain and spinal cord. This disease commonly takes place when bacteria enters the bloodstream and moves to the brain and spinal cord. A specific protein on the outside of this bacteria is what allows it to do so. Though bacteria can also directly invade the meninges. Bacterial meningitis has several kinds of bacteria that can cause it; including pneumococcus (the most common and responsible for over half of the cases), maningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.
    There are several types of meningitis, though bacterial meningitis is one of the more deadly and can cause death or disability within just one day. It’s early symptoms are easily confused with the flu and can arise within a few hours or days. A few of among many signs of bacterial meningitis are high fevers, severe headaches, stiff neck and seizures. The longer a person has this disease, without treatment, the greater the risk of neurological damage that will occur to the person.
    In the United States during 2003-2007 about 4,100 cases of bacterial meningitis occurred each year, including 500 deaths. Bacterial meningitis is treatable with antibiotics, though it is extremely important to start as soon as possible. The antibiotic chosen depends on the type of bacteria causing the infection; certain antibiotics can be more effective than others.

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118/DSECTION=causes /
    http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/newsrel/health/08-09Meningitis.asp
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118/DSECTION=symptoms
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs

    Reply
  33. ShawnP

    Project /Mrs. Sawyer

    Disease Project ShawnP
    Per.1
    The bacterial disease I chose to research is Escherichia Coli. The disease is commonly known as E-Coli. You get an E-Coli infection by coming into contact with the feces, or stool, of humans or animals. This can happen when you drink water or eat food that has been contaminated by feces. E-coli most commonly occurs in the bladder and left untreated can move up into the kidney and cause a kidney infection. Bladder or kidney infection from E-Coli can also get into the blood system and cause people to get very sick. Another type of E-Coli O157:H7 can be ingested from foods not unlike salmonella. This variety of E-Coli is often published in the new and especially associated with raw hamburger meat. These E-Coli makes people very ill and you can die from it.
    Symptoms
    Bloody diarrhea is common in confirmed cases of E-Coli infection, but the bacteria also should be considered a possible cause of non-bloody diarrhea.Other symptoms include abdominal cramping, pain or tenderness nausea and vomiting, in some people. Some other minor symptoms are fevers, sweating and loss of appetite. Perhaps one of the most rare cases of a symptom caused by E-Coli is bruising very easily.
    Treatment
    If you have any of the symptoms, you should contact a doctor immediately. For illness caused by E. coli O157:H7, no current treatments can cure the infection, relieve symptoms or prevent complications. For most people, the best option is to rest and drink plenty of fluids to help with dehydration and fatigue. Avoid taking an anti-diarrheal medication; this slows your digestive system down, preventing your body from getting rid of the toxins.

    http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/e-coli-infection-topic-overview
    http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/68511.php
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ecoliinfections.html

    Reply
  34. SerenaM

    SALMONELLOSIS
    SerenaM, 1st period
    Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella. You can obtain this disease by not washing your hands after handling animal feces, or eating meat that is not cooked properly and which contains salmonella. I guess you can say it’s a type of food poisoning. Salmonellosis comes with some unpleasant systems, but don’t worry, it is treatable. So I am here to give you facts about the disease if you are infected, or get infected in the future.
    So how does salmonellosis attack the body? Well first of all it attacks the stomach and the intestines. If the disease gets any more serious, it may enter the lymph tracts, which carry water and protein to the blood, and the blood itself. The bacteria can attack any age group, both male and female. Children, elderly, and sickly people are more likely to get a serious infection.
    The incubation period ranges from several hours to two days. Some possible signs and symptoms of salmonellosis include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, headache, muscle pains and blood in the stool. Signs and symptoms of salmonella infection generally last four to seven days, though it may take several months for your bowels to return to normal. A few varieties of salmonella bacteria result in typhoid fever, a sometimes deadly disease that is more common in developing countries.
    If you are like most people with salmonellosis, the disease will clear up within five to seven days and you won’t need treatment. However, if you have severe diarrhea, you might need intravenous fluids. If the disease spreads from your intestines into your bloodstream, your healthcare provider can treat it with antibiotics such as ampicillin. Some strains of Salmonellosis have become resistant to several antibiotics normally used to treat people with salmonellosis disease, posing a serious health threat.

    http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/salmonella.htm#ixzz2gz3oxdmf http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/salmonellosis.htm http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/salmonella/DS00926/DSECTION=symptoms http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/salmonellosis/pages/treatment.aspx

    Reply
  35. JulianneW, 7th period

    My dad wanted to know more about bacterial meningitis. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord that can be caused by a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection. Several pathogens cause bacterial meningitis. Some of them include Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Neisseria meningitidis.
    Neisseria meningitidis usually occurs when bacteria from an upper respiratory infection enters the blood stream. Haemophilus influenzae used to be the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, but vaccines have reduced this. Listeria monocytogenes (listeria) is found in soft cheeses, hot dogs and luncheon meats. Older adults and people with weak immune systems are more susceptible to this, but most healthy people are not affected by it.
    Some of the bacteria can be contagious in ways such as kissing, but not by casual contact. You can get it by eating contaminated food or having close or long contact with someone. Infants have a higher risk of getting bacterial meningitis, but people at any age are at risk. It can be treated with antibiotics, though it is important to start treatment as soon as possible.

    Reply
  36. SydneyAPeriod 6

    SydneyA
    Inhalation Anthrax, is a disease caused by breathing in aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores; inhalation is the deadliest form of anthrax. The anthrax infection usually develops within a week, and once the spores germinate, they cause hemorrhagic mediastinitis (internal bleeding in the chest). Bacillus anthracis is one of the most common bacterial agents used in a biological attack. People can also be infected with anthrax naturally, if a person is in close contact with animals, for example, hunters.
    Bacillus anthracis is the bacteria that causes the disease anthrax. When you inhale the bacteria, it starts to rapidly reproduce in your lungs and spread throughout your body. This causes internal bleeding, swelling, and organ and tissue death. The cure for anthrax is antibiotics, however, only 55 percent of people given aggressive treatment live, and there are genetically altered strands of the bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Symptoms other than internal bleeding include, vomiting, coughing up blood, fever and chills, sweat (often drenching), extreme fatigue, and dizziness.
    Anthrax is a common biological weapon, because anthrax spores can be easily found in nature (on animal hides, wool, and hair), easily produced in a lab, and last a long time in the environment. The spores can also be released quietly, because they are microscopic, they cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted.

    Sources:
    http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/inhalation-anthrax/overview.html
    http://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/types/inhalation.html
    http://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/types/inhalation.html

    Reply
  37. CourtneyL

    CourtneyL, Period 1
    The bacteria that causes the Bubonic Plague is Yersina pestis. Which is also the cause of the pneumonic plague. This disease is passed by a bite of an infected rodent or flea. Its also caused by the sneezing and coughing of an infected person.
    Yersina pestis was discovered by Louis Pasteur from France, in 1881. It was the first organism shown to have an important extracellular bacterial pathogen. The bacteria will multiply once it reaches the lymph nodes which plays a big part in the immune system.
    Symptoms of the Bubonic Plague are a headache, chills, a fever, and swollen lymph glands. The treatment used for the Bubonic Plague are antibiotics.

    Source:
    http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/bact-dis.htm
    http://plague.emedtv.com/bubonic-plague/bacteria-that-causes-the-bubonic-plague.html
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/plague/DS00493/DSECTION=symptoms

    Reply
  38. AbbieL Mrs.Sawyer 6th Period

    Pertussis, known as whooping cough is a worldwide bacterial disease. In 2010, 27,550 cases were reported in the U.S. and grow every day. Usually the cough lasts 1-6 weeks but can last up to 10. Pertussis is contagious from person to person. It can be transmitted by an infected person, through coughing and sneezing when in close contact with others. Infected droplets are inhaled spreading infection to a new host. Whooping cough is seen in all ages, but it is more prevalent and severe in unvaccinated infants and young children.
    Pertussis is caused by a bacterium called Bordetella pertussis. As a person inhales, it attaches to the cilia that line part of the upper respiratory tract. The bacteria release toxins, damaging the cilia which causes swelling. Swelling and inflammation eventually cause a cough to develop. Even after the bacteria are killed off, the immune system reaction to it can cause symptoms to last for a prolonged period.
    Symptoms of whooping cough starts with common cold symptoms. Runny nose, fever, mild cough, and apnea for an infant which is a pause in breathing patterns are common. After 1 to 2 weeks severe coughing begins. The coughing causes a gasping inhalation, in which a “whooping” sound occurs. Severe and continuous coughing may lead to vomiting, fatigue, burst blood vessels in the eyes, and low levels of oxygen especially in the very young. These coughing fits can continue for weeks.
    The main treatment for whooping cough is prevention by vaccination. Antibiotics are used in infected people. Early treatment with these drugs is imperative, as it lessens the severity of symptoms and can prevent the spread of the disease to other people. Treatment that begins any longer than three weeks into whooping cough infection, is unlikely to help because of the damage the bacteria have inflicted is complete by this time. Not everyone with a whooping cough infection will experience awful symptoms. The disease can present in a mild form. Infection with the harshest symptoms will require hospitalization with medications given via IV and oxygen therapy. Even with treatment the injury can be so bad that permanent damage to the brain and lungs occur. Some victims die from whooping cough.

    Reply
  39. KaiC Period 6

    Salmonella

    Salmonella is a type of bacteria that is usually found in poultry, eggs, unprocessed milk and in meat and water, and may also be carried by pets like turtles, rodents and birds. It can cause food poisoning, but one type of salmonella bacteria is the cause of typhoid fever, although this is rare. The Salmonella attacks the stomach and intestines. Salmonella has the ability to punch through the tight links of cells that make up the intestinal wall, using an arsenal of proteins and toxins it can inject into cells. Because the bug doesn’t damage tissue during this phase, there’s no inflammatory response. Instead, salmonella is mostly left alone, free to grow and multiply into a formidable invasion force.
    Some symptoms of salmonella include:
    Diarrhea, without blood.
    Headaches.
    Stomach cramps.
    Nausea and vomiting.
    Fever.
    A more severe infection may cause excessive diarrhea, stomach cramps and general health problems. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most persons recover without treatment. However, in some persons, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics.
    Salmonella infections can be avoided by paying attention to cleanliness and making sure that all food is thoroughly cooked. Dehydration is a major factor in salmonella because it can drain you of may of your fluids. Basic salmonella can be solved with drinking plenty of water. Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or ciprofloxacin, are not usually necessary unless the infection is more serious.

    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/typhimurium-cantaloupe-08-12/signs-symptoms.html
    http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/salmonella.htm

    Reply
  40. FionaB. 3rd period

    Salmonella is found all over the world. The most common types found in the United States are salmonella serotype Typhimurium and serotype Enteritidis. You can get this disease from foods that are already contaminated by it. The most common foods are beef, poultry, milk, and eggs. Vegetables have also been found to be contaminated and the food typically does not show it because it smells and looks normal. Most food is originally contaminated while being processed and handled because of unsanitary equipment or hands dealing with the food.
    The symptoms of salmonella are very varied on the person. Most people get diarrhea, fever, or abdominal cramps a few hours or days after the consumption of the salmonella infected food. Salmonella typically infects the intestines. Depending on the person, after being sick with the three symptoms above, they either have no more problems and are healthy, or get severely sick and need to be hospitalized. After being sick, the salmonella infection spreads from the intestines to the blood stream. Then it can pass to other body organs and could possibly cause death unless treated with proper antibiotics. Typically, it is caught before anything to severe comes out of it.
    Depending on a person’s extent of salmonella, effects the treatment they require. Most people don’t need treatment and the disease leaves their system naturally after 5-7 days. Antibiotics are the most commonly distributed, but other cases have needed more. Also, your symptoms effect your medications. If you have severe diarrhea, you might need rehydration and would be put onto an IV and have fluids pumped back into your system.

    http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/tc/salmonellosis-topic-overview
    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/typhimurium-cantaloupe-08-12/signs-symptoms.html
    http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/diagnosis.html

    Reply
  41. AmarisM

    AmarisM
    Period 4
    Meningitis is a disease that can spread like the common cold or even the flu, though not as fast.
    There are several pathogens involved in meningitis like: Haemophilus influenzae (most often caused by type b, Hib), Streptococcus pneumonia, group B Streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Neisseria meningitidis. Which all have a part in the age groups infected the disease, like in newborns, which get group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and listeria monocytogenes, and infants and children which get streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitides and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Adolescents/ young adults get Neisseria meningitides, and Streptococcus pneumonia, where older adults get Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitides and Listeria monocytogenes. Infants and the elderly are at a higher risk for meningitis though everyone can be as risk. It can be spread through kissing though most who carry the bacteria never actually become sick.
    There are some symptoms of meningitis and they may show up in a person by sudden onset of fever. Other symptoms of meningitis would be nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), and altered mental status (confusion). Symptoms may appear very quickly or over several days.
    Meningitis can be treated however. Antibiotics can be very effective though treatment must be started as soon as it is possible. Treatment also depends on the organism causing the infection and the extent of the infection. It may also depend on what other medications you take for the treatment. Meningitis is just as spreadable as a cold or the flu but is very curable and there are hardly any casualties.

    sources:
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
    http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/bacterial.html
    http://children.webmd.com/vaccines/tc/meningitis-treatment-overview

    Reply
  42. BryanL

    Pneumonia (Streptococcus pneumoniae variant)
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive(1) diplococcus(2) with a well-formed capsule. It spreads human-to-human in the form of aerosol droplets, whether it be saliva or water the infected person has had contact with. The bacteria starts its infection in the nasopharynx. From there, it can then spread itself into the lungs, eventually to the blood and through the whole body.

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia in adults. Symptoms that are included are sudden chills (shivers), fever, cough, pleuritic pain(3), and sputum(4). It can be extremely deadly if untreated. Currently the 8th leading cause of death in the US, it has caused 55,477 to die in 2006.

    Treatment for this bacterial disease is very simple. Just drink lots of water and plenty of rest. If the symptoms persist, then taking antibiotics and fever reducers should be enough. When taking medication, do not stop taking them when symptoms yield, it may come back very quickly. Make sure to call the doctor if more severe symptoms occur.

    (1) Gram-positive: Bacteria that is stained blue or violet by Gram staining
    (2) diplococcus: Encapsulated bacteria
    (3) pleuritic pain: Inflammation of the lungs. Usually very sharp chest pain.
    (4) sputum: Matter ejected from the mouth. Includes saliva, foreign material, and mucus.
    Sources:
    1. http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Streptococcus-pneumoniae.aspx
    2. http://www.atsu.edu/faculty/chamberlain/Website/pnebact.htm
    3. http://www.webmd.com/lung/tc/pneumonia-topic-overview?page=2
    4. http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Gram-positive_bacteria.html
    5. http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/diplococcus
    6. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/pleurisy/DS00244
    7. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sputum
    8. http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/influenza/in-depth-resources/pneumonia-fact-sheet.html

    Reply
  43. JahvanG

    Pertussis
    Pertussis (whooping cough) is a bacterial disease that is commonly seen with many people. However, it tends to be most severe with babies and young children. Pertussis is commonly spread through coughing or sneezing in close proximity to others. The bacterium does not soak through the skin, but will remain there persistently until they are killed, washed off, or transferred to their desired destination: the mouth or nose. Once in the mouth or nose, the bacterium will quickly be transferred to the esophagus and lungs, where they can irritate and manifest.
    Pertussis, at first, may seem like a common cold with a runny nose or congestion that lasts anywhere from 1 to 2 weeks. But, the “cold” may then be accompanied with loud coughs. The coughs will soon increase in number; until they come in series of coughs that empty the lungs of air which cause the person to make the well-known gasp or “whooping noise” for air. However in babies, the cough may be very minimal or not even there. The baby experiencing pertussis may then do into apnea, or life-threatening pauses in breathing.
    Although the vaccine for pertussis is highly effective, it is still not able to protect it’s recipient completely from the disease. It is recommended that people receive one dose at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 through 18 months, and 4 through 6 years for maximum long-term protection against the disease. In communities where there is an outbreak of the disease, it is best to contact a doctor because anyone may be at risk of the disease, whether they have been vaccinated or not. However, if you receive the vaccination, you are likely to have fewer coughing fits, shorter illness, and be less likely to suffer from disease complications. The best way to detect and prevent pertussis, is always to contact a doctor.
    http://www.cdc.gov/Features/Pertussis/

    Reply
  44. KortneyH

    MENINGITIS
    KortneyH
    Period 7
    Meningitis is an inflation of the membranes and surrounding your spinal cord and brain. In the U.S. most cases are caused by a viral infection. Also, bacterial and fungal infections can lead to meningitis. This disease can be a life-threatening emergency requiring immediate antibiotic treatment or it can get better on its own in a couple of weeks.
    Bacterial meningitis occurs when bacteria enters the bloodstream and migrates to the spinal cord and brain. Another occurrence is when bacteria invades the meninges directly, as a result of a skull fracture, or an ear or sinus infection. Some of the most common strains of bacteria that can cause meningitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria meningitides, haemophilus influenza, and listeria monocytogenes.
    Early signs of meningitis can easily be mistaken for the flu. Signs and symptoms may develop over one or two hours, or over several days. Some symptoms that may occur are sudden high fever, stiff neck, seizures, lack of interest in drinking and eating, or vomiting or nausea with headache. Infants have somewhat different symptoms including high fever, constant crying, poor feeding, stiffness in the baby’s body or neck, or a bulge in the soft spot on top of the baby’s head.
    Immediate treatment with intravenous antibiotics and cortisone medications to ensure recovery and reduce the risk of complications is required with bacterial meningitis. Antibiotics or combination of antibiotics depends on the type of bacteria causing the infection. A broad-spectrum antibiotic may be recommended until a doctor can determine the exact cause of the meningitis.
    Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com ; children.webmd.com ; http://www.cdc.gov

    Reply
  45. glennk

    GlennK
    Period 6
    10/6/13
    Strep Throat
    “Strep Throat” is a contagious disease, caused by Group A Streptococcus bacteria, and is dangerous if not treated. Infecting the throat and tonsils, irritation and inflammation will occur, causing a sudden and severe sore throat.
    The bacteria are spread usually through contact with particles from an infected person’s sneeze or cough, or by drinking after an infected person or eating off of their plate. The bacteria can survive in a person’s throat or tonsils, by producing a substance called SpyCEP, which inhibits the production of a molecule, by our bodies, that sends signals to white blood cells, allowing it to go undetected. To establish infection once in the body, the bacteria reproduce rapidly and with the aid of self produced toxins and enzymes, fully contaminate the tissue of a patient’s throat, creating an infection.
    The symptoms of a streptococcal infection can include the following:
    • Sudden, severe sore throat
    • Pain when swallowing
    • Fever
    • Swollen tonsils or lymph nodes
    • White or yellow spots on the back of a bright red throat
    Strep throat can be treated with antibiotics and Tylenol, Motrin, or Advil can be taken to lower pain and fever.

    Sources
    http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/tc/strep-throat-topic-overview
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080813120743.htm
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000639.htm

    Reply
  46. JessicaL

    Tetanus
    Caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani, Tetanus causes on average 1 million deaths a year. Eighty percent of these deaths occur in Africa or Asia. What is the main cause of these deaths? How do you get infected with this life threatening disease? What are the symptoms of tetanus? How can tetanus be treated?
    The main cause of death by Tetanus (also known as lockjaw) is the inability to properly vaccinate the population in rural countries. And even though most of us don’t include animal feces into our diet, it can still infect us by contact to an open wound or even a scratch. Symptoms of this disease include;
    • Stiffness in the neck, jaw, and other muscles, often accompanied by a painful, grinning expression.
    • Difficulty swallowing.
    • Irritability.
    • Spasms in the neck, and in the jaw muscles ( this is where the term ‘lockjaw’ comes from)

    The treatment for tetanus is unfortunately earlier vaccination. But antibotics have been helpful to slow down the effects of this disease.

    Sources:
    http://doctors-hospitals-medical-cape-town-south-africa.blaauwberg.net/details.php?id=753

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/tetanus/DS00227/DSECTION=causes

    http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/sosarafova/assets/bio307/cahermes/lifecycle.htm

    Reply
  47. AlexPp.4

    Meningitis
    Meningococcal Meningitis, the bacterial form of meningitis, is a very serious bacterial infection. Within one day of appearances of symptoms it can potentially kill a person. Meningitis can be acute, with a quick onset of symptoms, it can be chronic, lasting a month or longer, or it can be mild or aseptic. It is recommended that if you notice symptoms of meningitis you immediately go and see a doctor. The bacterium that is responsible is found in our environment and can also be found in our nose and respiratory system such as, Meningococcal, Pneumoccal, Haemophilus influenza b, Group B Streptococcal, Tubercular, E.coli, and Listeria. It is common in children between the ages of one month to two years; adults are also susceptible especially if they abuse alcohol.
    How do the bacteria work in causing the disease? There is a specific protein found on the bacterium that allows it to leave the blood stream and travel to the brain, breaking the blood-brain barrier. The outer tip where the protein is also attaches to the brain micro vascular endothelial cells, then makes them take in the pneumococcus, or whatever bacteria is present. The bacteria then attack the nervous system and can prevent blood flow or cause disability.
    Bacterial meningitis can be hard to identify, especially in early stages, because meningitis symptoms are similar to the more common viral infection. Meningitis symptoms may develop over several hours or over one or two days. Some of the symptoms prevalent in ages above the age of two are sudden high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, vomiting, confusion, seizures, sleepiness, sensitivity to light; lack of interest in drinking or eating, and in some cases a skin rash. Symptoms within a newborn that may have this bacterial disease can be a high fever, constant crying, excessive sleepiness or irritability, sluggishness, poor feeding, bulge in the soft spot on top of the baby’s head, and stiffness in the baby’s body and neck. In order to know if you have this bacterial disease you must seek a doctor and go through a fluid spinal test.
    Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics. At first the doctor may prescribe an antibiotic to you before the tests are in to help bring down the inflammation. Once the bacteria are identified the doctor may or may not prescribe a different antibiotic. It will be important to replenish fluids lost from loss of appetite, sweating, vomiting and diarrhea. There is also a vaccine available and should be taken between the ages 11-18.M any of the people who survive Bacterial meningitis can be left with serious medical problems that may include amputation of limbs, fingers, or toes, severe scarring, brain damage, hearing loss, kidney damage, and psychological problems.

    Sources:
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118/DSECTION=symptoms
    http://www.voicesofmeningitis.com/get-the-facts-the-basics.html
    http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/newsrel/health/08-09Meningitis.asp
    http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/meningitis/hic_bacterial_meningitis.aspx
    http://www.meningitis.org/disease-info/types-causes/bacterial-meningitis

    Reply
  48. XavierP

    Pertussis
    How the Bacteria Attacks the Body
    Also known as “whooping cough”, pertussis is a respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is highly contagious, and uncontrollable. Pertussis can cause permanent disabilities in infants or can even cause death. The infection lasts about six weeks. The bacteria is spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and the droplets from that gets in contact with a non-infected person. Pertussis makes it hard to breathe, and the coughing is very violent and uncontrollable.
    Symptoms
    Initial symptoms of pertussis are the common cold, and it develops in about a week after exposure to the bacterium. In 10 to 12 days later more severe coughing episodes start to occur. In children, the coughing often ends in a “whoop” noise, this noise is very rare in patients under 6 months and in adults. The spells of coughing can also lead to vomiting or loss of consciousness for a short time. People have been known to have choking spells along with the coughing. Other symptoms are runny nose, slight fevers of about 107 degrees or lower, and diarrhea. The symptoms of pertussis can be easily confused with the symptoms of pneumonia.
    Treatment
    Pertussis can be treated by taking antibiotics such as; erythromycin which makes the symptoms go away quicker than usual. An oxygen tent can help a person breathe because of the high humidity. To prevent pertussis altogether children should get DtaP and TdaP vaccines.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002528/
    http://www.livestrong.com/article/112166-list-bacterial-diseases/

    Reply
  49. princeampora

    TaylorP
    Period 7

    Cholera is a bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is usually spread through contaminated water. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe. Approximately one in 20 (5%) infected persons will have severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these people, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours. Modern sewage and water treatment have virtually eliminated cholera in industrialized countries. The last major outbreak in the United States occurred in 1911. But cholera is still present in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, India and sub-Saharan Africa. It is commonly treated with rehydration thearapy, in which Oral rehydration salts and, when necessary, intravenous fluids and electrolytes, if administered in a timely manner and in adequate volumes, will reduce fatalities to well under 1%.

    1.) http://www.cdc.gov/cholera
    2.) http://www.who.int/cholera/en/
    3.) http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cholera/DS00579

    Reply
  50. kailahr

    The Bacterial disease Meningitis is more dominant among infants but has definitely had an impact on children, adolescents, teens, adults, and seniors. However the bacteria that causes Meningitis in infants is Called Group B Streptococcus. Group B Strep causes meningitis which then causes inflammation of the part of the brain that helps to protect the spinal cord. Once this occurs it puts too much pressure on the spinal cord and causes the body to go through unwanted pain. 10% of humans diagnosed with bacterial meningitis usually won’t survive it. Most people will suffer sure brain damage and will generally lose hearing. However some people will be able to make it due to the medicines given and how quickly the person is diagnosed.
    When looking for symptoms in babies be sure to look for fevers and irritability. These are two high signs that mostly give warning of an infant having bacterial meningitis. Also when the babies obtain rashes be sure to check and take notes of whether they are caused by diapers or not. Make sure to check the child from head to toe mostly head because then you will notice whether the child has spots on their head. There are also more ways to look for bacterial meningitis like the child having a stiff body, bulging spots throughout the body, crying when being held, vomiting (found by evidence of lumbar), etc.
    To treat bacterial meningitis there has to be IV antibiotics fluids given throughout the body. You’ll also have to obtain many fluids throughout the body to keep from being dehydrated. You may even have to receive antibiotics through corticosteroids. Depending on the severity of the stage in which meningitis is found will determine how far the treatment goes.

    http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/nervous_system_disorders/bacterial_meningitis_134,26/
    http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis
    http://www.children.webmd.com

    Reply
  51. Donyae R.6thprd

    Donyae R.6thprd

    Pinkeye (also called conjunctivitis) is redness and swelling of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and eye surface. The lining of the eye is usually clear. If irritation or infection occurs, the lining becomes red and swollen. Pinkeye is very common. It usually is not serious and goes away in 7 to 10 days without medical treatment. Viral and bacterial pinkeye are contagious and spread very easily. Since most pinkeye is caused by viruses for which there is usually no medical treatment, preventing its spread is important. Poor hand-washing is the main cause of the spread of pinkeye. Sharing an object, such as a washcloth or towel, with a person who has pinkeye can spread the infection. For tips on how to prevent the spread of pinkeye, see the Prevention section of this topic. Viral pinkeye is often caused by an adenovirus, which is a common respiratory virus that can also cause a sore throat or upper respiratory infection. Symptoms of viral pinkeye include:
    • Redness in the white of the eye.
    • Swelling of the eyelids.
    • Itching or burning feeling of the eyelids.
    • Swollen and tender areas in front of the ears.
    • A lot of tearing.
    • Clear or slightly thick, whitish drainage.
    Viral pinkeye symptoms usually last 5 to 7 days but may last up to 3 weeks and can become ongoing or chronic.

    Sources:
    http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tc/pinkeye-topic-overview

    Reply
  52. ErikaS Period 7

    DIPHTHERIA ErikaS p. 7
    Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that is contagious if someone sneezes or coughs on you. It is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria. Usually it affects the throat and nose, causing a bad sore throat, swollen glands, fever, and chills. Unfortunately if it is not properly treated it can cause complications such as heart failure and paralysis because it begins to poison your body. Diphtheria can start out simple but it is actual a fatal bacterial infection if not treated in time.
    Usually symptoms in Diphtheria are caused when the bacteria invade the respiratory system and produces a poison (toxin). This toxin then begins to weaken the person, it gives them a soar throat and a high fever, as well as swollen glands in the neck. After two to three days a thick layer, called pseudomembrane, can form over the throat causing to become difficult to breathe and swallow. This pseudomembrane is formed from dead tissue build up from the toxin and can build up over the nasal tissues, tonsils, voice box, and throat. If not treated quickly the toxin can spread into your blood stream and may cause damage to the heart, kidneys and nerves.
    First before diagnosing a patient with Diphtheria they take a swab sample from the throat. Once they believe that you might have it they start treatment right away even if laboratory results have not been confirmed because they don’t want it getting worse. Treatment for Diphtheria consists of using diphtheria antitoxin to neutralize (counteract) the toxin produced by the bacteria and antibiotics to kill and eliminate diphtheria bacteria. They also keep patients in isolation because this bacterial infection is contagious. Fortunately, after 48 hours of being on antibiotics the patient is no longer isolated because they are no longer contagious. Once all treatment is done doctors will run other tests to make sure you are clear of any Diphtheria and the patient is set to go home

    Reply
  53. VeneciaS

    Period 6
    10/7/13

    Lyme disease is a disease spread by ticks. It is caused by a bacterium called spirochete, or Borrelia burgdorferi. When the tick bites a person, it allows the bacterium to infect the body. The symptoms are skin inflammation, heart and nervous system involvement, motor and sensory nerve damage, brain inflammation, arthritis, rashes, and “Flu-like” symptoms. Most cases are preventable with antibiotics, and for relief from symptoms, some pain medications may be prescribed. To prevent Lyme disease, you should avoid areas that are tick-infested or spray bug repellant containing DEET on yourself.

    Reply
  54. R-Dizzle Riha

    Pneumonia, a bacterium caused disease is caused by and expansion and combination of the lung tissues as a result of infection due to sniffing unknown or rather unfamiliar gasses that can enter your lungs as you inhale them. Just as an allergic reaction your body doesn’t know how to react to whatever the substance Is so it does whatever it can and in this case the lung tissues expand.
    Streptococcus is a bacterium that can cause pneumonia which is a respiratory disease. Streptococcus is spread by touch or discharges from your nose or throat as it is found in or on your skin. Although you might think, it is not very easily spread by touching other objects we use every day. as streptococcus enters your body through various ways it grows just as any bacteria and spreads causing inflammation of the lungs.
    As any disease, this comes with symptoms. Symptoms of pneumonia include: coughing, fever, and shortness of breath and also other symptoms include: confusion, headaches, and loss of appetite! Depending on the severity of your case the doctor will have to make a decision on to what you will do. If serious, you would be admitted to the hospital and treated with oxygen, medicine in your veins, and other breathing treatments.

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000145.htm
    http://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/streptococcal/group_a/fact_sheet.htm
    http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/499555/respiratory-disease/274496/Bacterial-infections-of-the-respiratory-system

    Reply
  55. maxinem21

    In the United States the most common bacterial disease is Salmonella food poisoning (or Salmonellosis.) This is generally caused by either Salmonella enteritidis or Salmonella typhimurium. Most types of salmonella are found in animals intestine tracks thus contaminating food -indirectly contaminating humans. One can be easily infected with a weakened immunity system.
    Salmonella entertidis broke out worldwide throughout the 1980’s and 90’s worldwide, mainly in the United states. Eggs, poultry, raw/undercooked meat, and unwashed fruits and veggies are the popular items this bacterium can be found in. S.E. is a flagella that does not form spores. Salmonella typhimurium pertains to the intestines alone.
    Symptoms are the same for both bacterium. They attack the body by lymph tracts (area that carries blood and protein to the blood.) Included are nausea, throwing up, diarrhea, stomach pains, head ache, and a fever. This can be cured with antibiotics and to keep from dehydration drinking lots of fluids. Salmonella typhi can be treated by vaccine.

    http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/meinhard_jaso/Adaptation_.htm
    http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/g/a/Salmonella.htm
    http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/bacteriaviruses/salmonella/
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/salmonella/DS00926/DSECTION=symptoms
    http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/salmonella.htm

    (MaxineM p.6)

    Reply
  56. Annie C period 4

    Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria arrives into the body through airborne particles, a transfer between an infected person and his or her victim. This is especially a risk in high traffic living and work environments. The bacteria travels into your lungs and multiplies, where it becomes either latent or active.
    Latent TB is a passive form of the disease, where the person feels no symptoms. Scar tissue or fibrosis forms to prevent the bacteria from spreading as well as fight infection. If the disease becomes active, the sick person suffers from chest pains and coughing, which can develop into pneumonia and enlarged lymph nodes. The kidneys, bones, and spine lining meninges are damaged.
    TB is treated with antibiotics such as rifampin, ethambutol, and purazinamide. It is crucial for the person to slowly be waned off their medication after treated in order to heal completely. Vaccinations are also developed to help prevent this disease. A healthy diet is also important to instill a good immune system.

    webmd
    The Truth About TB
    Mayo’s Clinic

    Reply
  57. MatthewK

    I asked my mom what disease she knew about and as said Lyme disease….The bacteria which causes this disease is Borrelia Burgdorferi. This bacterium is spirochetes similar to that of a syphilis bacterium.

    Borrelia Burgdorferi usually spreads to humans from ticks.. When it attacks the cell, it disrupts normal cell activities. This bacteria has a triple cell wall covered by glycol proteins, our immune system attacks bacteria by finding the proteins. So Our bodies cannot find it. the bacteria produce neurotoxins that mess with functions of nervous and brain cells.

    a rash will occur around the site of the area. most symptoms are mental.. Some symtoms are memory loss,fatigue and head ache.
    Treatment can be given easily if Lyme disease is detected early you can be given Antibiotics The treatment is given 2-4 months because the Borrelia Burgdorferi is slow to reproduce so the antibiotics can’t get to it as fast.

    http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/arthritis-lyme-disease?page=3

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lyme-disease/DS00116

    http://lymedisease.org/
    ………. Matthew K

    Reply
  58. Sami (pd 6)

    My mom wanted to know about Scarlet Fever and how it affects you. Although its not as common as it was 100 years ago, scarlatina is caused by an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria. This makes a toxin that can cause the red-colored rash, where the disease name comes from. It usually affects children between 2-12 years old that have strep throat. The bacteria live in someone’s nose or throat so it is spread through coughing, sneezing, and sharing food/drink. Your body can be affected with fever, sore throat, chills, vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen and red tongue, and be hard to swallow.

    The rash is the most noticeable symptom of Scarlet Fever. It appears as small, flat red blotches which become tiny bumps that feel like sandpaper.It usually begins on the neck/face, then spreads to the chest/back, then the rest of your body. Skin creases like on your underarms and elbows will have brighter red lines called Pastia’s lines. After about 7 days, the rash will fade and your skin will peel like a sunburn. Other symptoms are the same as strep throat’s (red throat, fever, etc.)

    Scarlet Fever is treated with antibiotics. The doctor takes a throat culture, or swabs, and sends it to the lab to see if the bacteria grows. If it is positive, they will prescribe you medicine (pill or liquid) to take for at least 10 days.

    http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/scarlet-fever-topic-overview

    http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/scarlet_fever.html

    http://www.cdc.gov/features/scarletfever/

    Reply
  59. MaryClareA

    Mary Clare Allen p.6
    Onychomycosis is normally caused by the bacteria dermatophyte, but accuarate diagnosis requires fungal culture and microscopy. This disease is an infection of the nail and/or nail bed and can infect both the fingernails and toenails. This infections can cause discoloration, tenderness, and build up of and around the nail. Unless the infection I severe, there is normally no symptoms or pain in other body parts. Patients can suffer social, emotional, and financial problems as a result of this infection.
    Treatments of Onychomycosis include topical antifungals and oral therapy. Topical treatments are normally unable to cure this disease because of insufficient nail penetration. Oral treatments have a much better ability to penetrate the nail plate within days of treatment. Using topical antifungals and oral therapy together decreases duration of treatment and a better probability of success.
    This disease becomes more prevalent with age because of the lack of blood circulation and longer exposure to fungi/bacteria. Onychomycosis is associated with a family history and is more common in men than women. Being in a moist public environment and heavy perspiring are other risk factors. Skin/nail injuries, athletes foot, and circulation problems can raise the likelihood of one getting infected.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88888/
    http://www.news-medical.net/health/Onychomycosis-Symptoms.aspx
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1105828-treatment
    Fungal Infection of the Nail:

    Reply
  60. JoeyW

    October 6, 2013 at 10:52 pm
    The disease bacterial meningitis is a very deadly disease. It is an inflammation of the meninges, the lining that protects the brain and spinal cord. The most common bacteria causing this disease is Haemophilus influenzae. In the United States alone 4,100 cases have been reported with 500 deaths between 2003-2007.
    The bacteria inflames the tissue protecting the brain and spinal cord causing swelling. Infants are at higher risk for bacterial meningitis than people in other age groups. College students living in dormitories and military people are at increased risk for meningococcal meningitis because it spreads in populated cramped areas. Some symptons are: Nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light, altered mental status.
    Luckily this disease can be treated. The disease is easily treated with antibiotics. It is important for treatment to be taken fast before permanent damage takes place. Antibiotics only reduce the percentage of dying to the disease below 15% but it is still higher in infants.
    (I posted this in the wrong section at first?)

    Reply
  61. Anonymous

    JoeyW
    October 6, 2013 at 10:52 pm
    The disease bacterial meningitis is a very deadly disease. It is an inflammation of the meninges, the lining that protects the brain and spinal cord. The most common bacteria causing this disease is Haemophilus influenzae. In the United States alone 4,100 cases have been reported with 500 deaths between 2003-2007.
    The bacteria inflames the tissue protecting the brain and spinal cord causing swelling. Infants are at higher risk for bacterial meningitis than people in other age groups. College students living in dormitories and military people are at increased risk for meningococcal meningitis because it spreads in populated cramped areas. Some symptons are: Nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light, altered mental status.
    Luckily this disease can be treated. The disease is easily treated with antibiotics. It is important for treatment to be taken fast before permanent damage takes place. Antibiotics only reduce the percentage of dying to the disease below 15% but it is still higher in infants.

    Reply

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